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dba培训教程:Oracle备份恢复-数据泵

dba培训教程:Oracle备份恢复-数据泵

dba培训教程:Oracle备份恢复-数据泵

平台:redhat Linux as5,oracle10g

Oracle10g 引入了最新的数据泵(Data Dump)技术,使得DBA或应用开发人员可以将数据库的元数据库和数据快速移动到别一个Oracle数据库中,因为它可以导出数据库(表空间等),所以也叫逻辑备份,数据泵导出导入命今行选项非常多,大家可以到联机文档查看各个选项的用法.,本文详细介绍最常用的导出导入数据库表空间,然后介绍如何导入导出整个数据库及数据文件等

表空间

导出表空间

先准备一个表空间,并建表

SQL> conn y/123

SQL> create tablespace test1 datafile '/home/oracle/oracle/oradata/db2/test1.dbf' size 10M;

SQL> create table test1(i number) tablespace test1;

SQL> insert into test1 values(10);

SQL> commit;

SQL> select * from test1;

I

---------------------

10

建立dumpdir目录,并给用户y赋权

[oracle@oracle]# mkdir /dumpdir

SQL> create directory dumpdir as '/rman';

SQL> conn sys as sysdba

SQL> grant read,write on directory dumpdir to y;

SQL> grant dba to y;

SQL> conn y/123

分析表test1是否满足导出条件

SQL> alter tablespace test1 read only;

Tablespace altered.

SQL> exec sys.dbms_tts.transport_set_check('test1',true);

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> select * from sys.transport_set_violations;

no rows selected

#可见没有不满足的数据

导出表空间

SQL> ! expdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=tbs.dmp transport_tablespaces=test1

Username: sys as sysdba

Password:

Export: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Saturday, 13 June, 2009 1:58:13

Copyright (c) 2003, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production

With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

Starting "Y"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01": y/******** directory=dumpdir dumpfile=ttbs.dmp tablespaces=t

Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...

Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA

Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 64 KB

Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE

Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX

Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT

Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS

Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENT

. . exported "Y"."T" 4.906 KB 1 rows

Master table "Y"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded

******************************************************************************

Dump file set for Y.SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01 is:

/dumpdir/tbs.dmp

Job "Y"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLESPACE_01" successfully completed at 01:58:42

没有报错,已成功导出表空间test1

2.导入表空间

现在把刚才导出的表空间导入到别一个数据库(2)中

在数据库(2)建dumpdir目录,把库1导出的tbs.dmp复制到dumpdir同时把库1的数据文件test1.dbf复制到库2的/home/oracle/oracle/oradata/db2/

#库2的IP为192.168.1.2

[oracle@oracle22]$ mkdir /dumpdir

[oracle@oracle11]$ scp /dumpdir/tbs.dmp root@192.168.1.2:/dumpdir/

[oracle@oracle11]$ scp /home/oracle/oracle/oradata/test1.dbf

root@192.168.1.2:/home/oracle/oracle/oradata/db2/

开始导入(以下在库2操作)

SQL> ! impdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=tbs.dmp transport_datafiles='/home/oracle/oracle/oradata/db2/test1.dbf'

Username: sys as sysdba

Password:

Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production

With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

ORA-31655: no data or metadata objects selected for job

Master table "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_TABLESPACE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded

Starting "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_TABLESPACE_01": sys/******** AS SYSDBA directory=dumpdir dumpfile=ttbs.dmp tablespaces=tt

Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA

Job "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_TABLESPACE_01" successfully completed at 04:53:23

导入成功,但这时表空间为offline状态,

现在把表空间online就可以查到表test1的数据了,如下:

SQL> select tablespace_name,status from dba_tablespaces where tablespace_name='TEST';

TABLESPACE_NAME STATUS

------------------------------ ---------

SYSTEM ONLINE

TEST1 OFFLINE

把表空间online并查看test1表

SQL> alter tablespace test1 online;

SQL> alter tablespace test1 read write;

SQL> select * from test1;

I

-----------------------

10

OK了,成功把表空间test1从库1导入到库2

其它导入导出

1.导出

expdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=full.dmp full=y

expdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=tbs.dmp tablespaces=test1,test2

expdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=table.dmp tables=test1,test2

expdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=schma.dmp schemas=test1,test2

2.导入

impdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=full.dmp full=y

impdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=tbs.dmp transport_datafiles='/home/oracle/oralce/oradata/db2/test1.dbf', '/home/oracle/oralce/oradata/db2/test2.dbf'

impdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=table.dmp tables=test1,test2

impdp directory=dumpdir dumpfile=schma.dump schemas=test1,test2

注意事项:

导入导出时注意如下几点

1.源数据库和目标数据库要有相同的字符集

2.名称不能相同(导库时库名不能相同,导表空间时表空间名不能相同等)

3.不能搬移system表空间和有sys用户对象的表空间

4.要在不同OS上搬移表空间,要保证compatible 设置为10.0以上

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